COVID-19 is a pandemic that has affected beyond 100 million and caused nearly 3 million deaths globally. Vitamin D is a known risk factor for COVID-19. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D level with COVID-19 infection and mortality in Asia, predicting with other confounding factors such as median age, obesity, and diabetes.
COVID-19 infections and mortalities among the Asian countries were retrieved from the Worldometer website. Information on prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D values in each Asian country was retrieved through literature searching on PubMed® and Google scholar. The associations between COVID-19 infections and mortalities with prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and mean vitamin D level were explored with correlation coefficients. As a predictive analysis, multiple linear regression was carried out with all confounders.
Positive correlations were observed for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 infections (r = 0.55; p = 0.01; R = 0.31) and mortalities (r = 0.50; p = 0.01; R = 0.25). Moreover, the associations for the COVID-19 infections and mortalities improved to r = 0.76 (p = 0.002; R = 0.58) and r = 0.65 (p = 0.03; R = 0.42), respectively, after predicting with confounding factors. Similarly, mean vitamin D level had a significant negative correlation with COVID-19 infections (r = -0.77; p = 0.04; R = 0.59) and mortalities (r = -0.80; p = 0.03; R = 0.63) when combining with confounders.
Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is significantly positively associated whereas the mean vitamin D level is significantly negatively associated with both infection and mortality rate of COVID-19 among Asian countries upon predicting with all confounders.

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