To compare effect of topical cyclosporine-A 0.05% (CsA) and chloroquine phosphate 0.03% (CHQ) as an adjunct to standard therapy in maintaining post-laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ocular surface stability.
Randomized controlled trial on 100 eyes undergoing femtosecond-LASIK randomized into three groups- 33 eyes in Group I (Standard Treatment group), 34 eyes in Group II (CsA group) and 33 eyes in Group III (CHQ group). Standard treatment included topical moxifloxacin, topical prednisolone and carboxymethyl cellulose. Group II received topical CsA 0.05% twice daily for three months and group III received topical CHQ 0.03% twice daily for three months in addition to standard treatment. Primary outcome measure was change in ocular surface disease index (OSDI) at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures were tear break up time (TBUT), Schirmer-I score, tear film osmolarity, tear film MMP-9 and visual acuity. Follow up was performed at postoperative 1, 3 and 6 months.
At 6 months, OSDI score, MMP-9, tear osmolarity, TBUT and Schirmer score were significantly better in both CsA and CHQ groups as compared with controls (p  0.05). In CsA group, tear film MMP-9 levels at 6 months were comparable to preoperative baseline (p = 0.09). There was no significant change in the Schirmer score from baseline in the CsA group; in addition, the Schirmer score was significantly better than the CHQ group at 6 months (p = 0.02).Visual acuity was comparable in all three groups. Adverse effects including burning sensation, stinging, pain and redness were reported by ten patients (CsA group- 3, CHQ group-7; p = 0.28).
Both CsA and CHQ are useful adjuncts to standard therapy in maintaining ocular surface stability after refractive surgery. Cyclosporine A has more potent and sustained anti-inflammatory effect with less ocular irritative effects.