The major symptoms of Tourette syndrome are motor and vocal tics, but Tourette syndrome is occasionally associated with cognitive alterations as well. Although Tourette syndrome does not affect the majority of cognitive functions, some of them improve. There is scarce evidence on the impairment of learning functions in patients with Tourette syndrome. The core symptoms of Tourette syndrome are related to dysfunction of the basal ganglia and the frontostriatal loops. Acquired equivalence learning is a kind of associative learning that is related to the basal ganglia and the hippocampi. The modified Rutgers Acquired Equivalence Test was used in the present study to observe the associative learning function of patients with Tourette syndrome. The cognitive learning task can be divided into two main phases: the acquisition and test phases. The latter is further divided into two parts: retrieval and generalization. The acquisition phase of the associative learning test, which mainly depends on the function of the basal ganglia, was affected in the entire patient group, which included patients with Tourette syndrome with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, or no comorbidities. Patients with Tourette syndrome performed worse in building associations. However, the retrieval and generalization parts of the test phase, which primarily depend on the function of the hippocampus, were not worsened by Tourette syndrome.