Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often present with discourse-level deficits that affect functional communication. These deficits are not thought to be primarily linguistic in nature but instead are thought to arise from the interaction of linguistic and cognitive processes. Discourse processing treatment (DPT) is a discourse-based treatment protocol which targets discourse deficits frequently seen in TBI. Attention Process Training-2 (APT-2) is a published treatment protocol which targets four levels of attention. The purpose of this article is to investigate the effectiveness of DPT and APT-2 in improving discourse production and cognition in adults with TBI. Our results suggest that DPT results in greater improvement in discourse informativeness and coherence, but the combination of DPT and APT-2 resulted in greater generalization to untrained stimuli. Both DPT and APT-2 appear to have some potential to improve cognition, but there was intersubject variability with regard to which treatment is more effective.Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.