For a study, researchers sought to create a pyroptosis-related risk score (RS) model for acute myeloid leukemia prognosis (AML).

The TARGET (training) and E-MTAB-1216 (validation) datasets were downloaded. In the training dataset, pyroptotic-related genes with distinct expression patterns were found in the recurrent and non-recurrent samples. Seven pyroptosis-related genes were included in an RS predictive model utilizing LASSO regression coefficients. Using the RS model, the samples were divided into high- and low-risk groups. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between these groups were then identified, and these groups’ immunological health was assessed.

Forty-nine genes associated with pyroptosis, including 22 DEGs, were examined. Most juvenile AML samples included mutations in WT1, NPM, FLT3/ITD, and CEBPA. Seven pyroptosis-related genes were used to build an RS prognostic model. Prognostic information and the two risk categories were substantially correlated. The clinical data determined that FLT3/ITD mutations, CEBPA mutations, and RS model status were independent prognostic variables. Immune-related pathways were associated with the DEG differences between the two groups. Additionally, the high-risk group had significantly fewer immune-related pathways and immune cell distribution.

The prognosis and recurrence of pediatric AML can be predicted by seven genes associated with pyroptosis: CHMP2A, PRKACA, CASP9, IRF2, CHMP3, HMGB1, and AIM2.