Anales de pediatria (Barcelona, Spain : 2003) 2018 03 29() pii S1695-4033(18)30004-3
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES
Congenital heart disease (CHD) represents the most common congenital malformation. The objective of this study was to analyse the incidence of CHD in Spain, and it is the first nationwide study so far.
A retrospective observational study was performed in order to evaluate the incidence of CHD in Spain. The administrative database (minimum basic data set) from 2003 to 2012 was analysed in children less than one year old admitted to hospital with codes of CHD (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, clinical modification). Cumulative incidence, Incidence relative risk, and standardised incidence ratio were calculated to study geographic variations.
There were 64,831 infants with CHD among the 4,766,325 births analysed during the period studied, with an incidence of 13.6‰. The incidence excluding atrial septal defect was 7.29 ‰.The most frequent CHD were atrial septal defect (6.31‰), ventricular septal defect (3.48‰), patent ductus arteriosus (2.71‰), coarctation of the aorta (0.55‰), pulmonary stenosis (0.50‰), transposition of the great arteries (0.49‰), atrioventricular septal defect (0.45‰), and tetralogy of Fallot (0.41‰). Castilla and Leon, together with Extremadura, showed the highest risks for severe and very severe CHD, while Madrid and Cantabria showed the lowest.
An increase of mild CHD was observed during the period analysed. This could have been influenced by improvements in diagnostic techniques, extended use of echocardiography, and the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, clinical modification coding system, and to a decrease in very severe CHD, which is less influenced by external factors. Significant geographical differences were found in the incidence of severe and very severe CHD.