Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating vascular event. Clinical factors prognostic of recurrence facilitating individualized post-bleeding patient management are sparsely described. We aimed to describe incidence of recurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage and explore the prognostic value of 25 clinical characteristics in patients with and without atrial fibrillation.
Cohort study of patients with incident intracerebral hemorrhage diagnosed from 2003 to 2016 identified using nationwide Danish administrative registries. Results reported as cumulative incidence of intracerebral recurrence accounting for competing risk of death. Univariate and multivariate prognostic factors for recurrence estimated using Cox regression (hazard ratios [HRs], 95% confidence intervals [CI]).
We identified 9255 patients with incident intracerebral hemorrhage (median age 73 years, 46.6% females, 16% with atrial fibrillation). Five-year risks of recurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage were approximately 10% in the study population, although slightly higher for patients without atrial fibrillation. Prognostic factors for recurrence were broadly similar for patients with and without atrial fibrillation. Age in categories <60 years (reference), age 60-70 years (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.64), age 70-80 years (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.26-2.00), age >80 years (HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.91-1.55), nursing home residency (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.02-2.13), and Scandinavian Stroke Scale score (‘mild’ versus ‘moderate’ (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.13-1.72) and ‘severe’ (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.61-2.39)) were the strongest prognostic factors.
Risk of recurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage after five years was approximately 10%. Clinical characteristics associated with recurrence were few and broadly similar for patients with and without atrial fibrillation, with age and measure of incident bleeding severity, as reflected by Scandinavian Stroke Scale score, being the most important.
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