: We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the overall incidence and risk of proteinuria associated with five newly approved VEGFR-TKIs (regorafenib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, lenvatinib, axitinib) in cancer patients.: Pubmed, Embase, ASCO abstracts and ESMO abstracts were searched to identify relevant studies. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random or fixed effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies.: A total of 9,446 patients from 20 RCTs were included for the meta-analysis. The use of newly approved VEGFR-TKIs was associated with an increased risk of all-grade (RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.69-3.27, P<0.001) and high-grade (RR 3.70, 95% CI 2.09-6.54, P<0.001) proteinuria. On subgroup analysis, lenvatinib, axitinib and vandetanib significantly increased the risk of all-grade proteinuria, and lenvatinib was associated with an increased risk of high-grade proteinuria. In addition, the risk of developing high-grade proteinuria events was significant for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and renal-cell carcinoma (RCC), but not for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and thyroid cancer (TC).: Treatment with newly approved VEGFR-TKIs significantly increases the risk of developing proteinuria events in cancer patients, especially for patients treated with lenvatinib.
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