This study examined the association between chronic HBV or HCV infection and the risk of extrahepatic cancers.A total of 537,103 adultsaged ≥20 years without history of cancer were identified from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort between 2003 and 2013. The difference in cancer incidence was compared between those with and without chronic HBV or HCV infection. During 3,854,130person-years of follow-up (median follow-up:8.0 years), 19,089 participants developed cancer. After adjusting for sex, body mass index, smoking, drinking, income percentile, residential area, and co-morbidities, hazard ratios (HRs) for incident extrahepatic cancer were significantly higher in participants with chronic HBV infection (HR: 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-1.35), HCV infection (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.48), or HBV/HCV dual infection (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.31-1.72) compared to participants without HBV or HCV infection. In chronic HBV infection, the cancer risk was higher for hematologic malignancy [HR (95% CI) = 2.46 (1.92-3.15)], gallbladder [1.55 (1.05-2.29)], pancreas [1.52 (1.07-2.15)], stomach [1.39 (1.22-1.58)], lung [1.27 (1.04-1.55)], colorectum [1.21 (1.03-1.42)], and thyroid cancer [1.20 (1.05-1.36)]. In chronic HCV infection, the cancer risk was higher for testis [10.34 (1.35-79.78)], gallbladder [2.90 (1.62-5.18)], prostate [2.51 (1.65-3.82)], and thyroid cancer [1.46 (1.10-1.93)].In conclusion, chronic HBV or HCVinfection was not only associated with an increased risk of liver cancer, but also associated with an increased risk of multiple extrahepatic cancers.
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