Endometriosis is associated with increased risk of clear cell ovarian cancer and has even suggested being an etiological factor for this cancer. Association between endometriosis and extraovarian clear cell cancers is unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between surgically diagnosed endometriosis and risk of extraovarian clear cell cancers according to the type of endometriosis (i.e., ovarian, peritoneal, and other endometriosis) and the site of clear cell cancer.
In this register-based historic cohort study we identified all women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Registry 1987-2012. Data on extraovarian clear cell cancers of these women were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The follow-up started January 1st, 2007 or at endometriosis diagnosis (if later), and ended at emigration, death or on the December 31st, 2014. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for each site of clear cell carcinoma (intestine, kidney, urinary tract, gynecological organs other than ovary), using the Finnish female population as reference.
The endometriosis cohort consisted of 48,996 women, including 22,745 women with ovarian and 19,809 women with peritoneal endometriosis. Altogether 23 extraovarian clear cell cancers were observed during 367,386 person-years of follow-up. The risk of extraovarian clear cell cancer was not increased among all women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (standardized incidence ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.56-1.33) nor in different types of endometriosis. The incidence of clear cell cancer in any specific site was not increased either.
The risk of extraovarian clear cell cancers in women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis is similar to that in the general population in Finland.