To determine exposure rates to antibiotics prior to radical cystectomy and determine if there is correlation with post-operative infections.
2248 patients were identified in the 2016 SEER-Medicare linkage who underwent radical cystectomy between 2008 and 2014 with complete prescription information. An outpatient prescription for an antibiotic within 30 days prior to cystectomy was considered exposure. Antibiotic class and combinations were recorded. Postoperative infectious diagnoses and readmissions were tabulated within 30 days of cystectomy.
Fifty one percent of patients (n=1149) were prescribed an outpatient antibiotic prior to cystectomy. Patients receiving antibiotics were more likely to be female (31% v 25%, p<0.01) and had been diagnosed with an infection (17% v 11%, p<0.01). Antibiotic bowel prophylaxis was prescribed to 42% of patients receiving antibiotics. Postoperatively, the exposure group had higher rates of any infection, (56% vs 51% p<0.01) and UTI (36% vs 31% p<0.01). All-cause readmission within 30 days was higher in the exposure cohort (26% v. 22%, p=0.02) Multivariable logistic regression showed outpatient preoperative antibiotics were an independent risk factor for any infection (HR 1.19, p<0.05) and readmission (HR 1.24, p=0.03) in the 30 days after radical cystectomy.
Outpatient antibiotic use prior to radical cystectomy is common and may be associated with increased risk of postoperative infection and readmission. Antibiotic use prior to radical cystectomy should be examined as a modifiable factor to decrease post-operative morbidity.

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