The incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) with post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE) in the modern era of strong, protocolized immunosuppressive management are unknown. In this study, we aim to identify the incidence and risk factors of PTE and outcomes associated with PTE. Thisstudy examined adult KTRs transplanted at our hospital between 01/2001 and 12/2016. Controls were KTRs without PTE and selected in a 1:5 ratio using incident density sampling. Patient survival, graft survival, and vascular thromboembolism (VTE) incidence were outcomes of interest. Of 4,317 kidney transplants during the study period, 214 (5%) had PTE and were compared with controls. In the multivariate analysis, recipients with older age (HR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, p=0.001) were less likely to develop PTE, while male gender (HR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.92-5.3, p<0.001) and non-preemptive transplant (HR: 3.86, 95% CI 1.56-9.56, p=0.003) were associated with increased risk of PTE. After adjustment for confounding factors, PTE was not associated with patient mortality (HR: 0.99, 95% CI 0.69-1.42, p=0.97), graft failure (HR: 1.11, 95% CI 0.68-1.80, p=0.69) or VTE (HR: 1.07, 95% CI 0.59-1.96, p=0.81). The incidence of PTE is still substantial in this era, but with proper management PTE does not impact patient or graft survival.
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