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Incidental lung cancers and positive computed tomography images in people living with HIV.

Incidental lung cancers and positive computed tomography images in people living with HIV.
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Ronit A, Kristensen T, Klitbo DM, Gelpi M, Kalhauge A, Benfield T, Gerstoft J, Lundgren J, Vestbo J, Kofoed KF, Nielsen SD,


Ronit A, Kristensen T, Klitbo DM, Gelpi M, Kalhauge A, Benfield T, Gerstoft J, Lundgren J, Vestbo J, Kofoed KF, Nielsen SD, (click to view)

Ronit A, Kristensen T, Klitbo DM, Gelpi M, Kalhauge A, Benfield T, Gerstoft J, Lundgren J, Vestbo J, Kofoed KF, Nielsen SD,

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AIDS (London, England) 31(14) 1973-1977 doi 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001600

Abstract
OBJECTIVE
Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of high-risk groups in the general population is recommended by several authorities. This may not be feasible in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) due to higher prevalence of nodules. We therefore assessed the prevalence of positive computed tomography (CT) images and lung cancers in PLWHIV.

DESIGN
The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. Single-round LDCT was performed with subsequent clinical follow-up (NCT02382822).

METHOD
Outcomes included histology-proven lung cancer identified by LDCT and positive CT images (noncalcified nodules) in the entire cohort and in the high-risk group (>50 years of age and >30 pack-years). We also assessed the procedures and adverse events, and clinical factors associated with a positive CT image.

RESULTS
LDCT was performed in 901 patients, including 113 at high risk for lung cancer. A positive image was found in 28 (3.1% of the entire cohort and 9.7% of the high-risk group). Nine patients (all in the high-risk group) had invasive procedures undertaken with no serious adverse events. Lung cancer (stages IA, IIA, and IIIA) was diagnosed in three patients from the high-risk group (2.7%). CD4 cell count less than 500 cells/μl and CD4 nadir less than 200 cells/μl were each independently associated with increased odds of a positive image odds ratio 2.32 [95% confidence interval: 1.01-5.13, P = 0.04] and odds ratio 2.63 [95% confidence interval: 1.13-6.66, P = 0.03].

CONCLUSION
Randomized LDCT screening trials in PLWHIV are nonexistent, but these findings are comparable with screening rounds from the general population in terms of prevalence of lung cancer and positive CT images.

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