Blood cancer journal 2018 04 048(4) 39 doi 10.1038/s41408-018-0074-7
Gene mutations have not yet been included in the 2016 WHO classification and revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS-R), which are now widely utilized to discriminate myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients regarding risk of leukemia evolution and overall survival (OS). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether integration of gene mutations with other risk factors could further improve the stratification of MDS patients. Mutational analyses of 25 genes relevant to myeloid malignancies in 426 primary MDS patients showed that mutations of CBL, IDH2, ASXL1, DNMT3A, and TP53 were independently associated with shorter survival. Patients within each IPSS-R or 2016 WHO classification-defined risk group could be stratified into two risk subgroups based on the mutational status of these five genes; patients with these poor-risk mutations had an OS shorter than others in the same risk group, but similar to those with the next higher risk category. A scoring system incorporating age, IPSS-R and five poor-risk mutations could divide the MDS patients into four risk groups (P < 0.001 for both OS and leukemia-free survival). In conclusion, integration of gene mutations in current IPSS-R improves the prognostication of MDS patients and may help identify high-risk patients for more aggressive treatment in IPSS-R lower risk group.