PloS one 2018 03 1513(3) e0194418 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0194418
We evaluated the risk of osteoporosis in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) using a nationwide population-based dataset.
In a cohort study of 986,713 individuals, we selected 2,493 PBC patients who were aged 18 years or older and had been diagnosed with PBC, based on the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) codes 571.6, during 20002010. The control cohort comprised 9,972 randomly selected, propensity matched patients (by age, gender, and index date), without PBC. Using this adjusted data, a possible association between PBC and the risk of developing osteoporosis was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model.
During the follow-up period, osteoporosis was diagnosed in 150 (6.02%) patients in the PBC cohort and in 539 (5.41%) patients in the non-PBC cohort. After adjusting for covariates, osteoporosis risk was found to be 3.333 times greater in the PBC cohort than in the non-PBC cohort when measured over 6 years after PBC diagnosis. Stratification revealed that the use of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) had no significance in decreasing the risk of osteoporosis when comparing the PBC cohorts with the non-PBC cohorts (P = 0.124). Additionally, osteoporosis risk was significantly higher in PBC patients with steroid use (aHR: 6.899 vs 3.333). Moreover, when comparing the PBC cohorts to the non-PBC cohorts, the non-cirrhotic patients were prone to osteoporosis at a younger age compared to those in the cirrhotic cohorts. We also found that the associated risk of fractures is only prominent for vertebral and wrist fractures in the PBC cohort compared to that in the non-PBC cohort.
A significant association exists between PBC and subsequent risk for osteoporosis. Therefore, PBC patients, particularly those treated with steroids, should be evaluated for subsequent risk of osteoporosis.