Advertisement

 

 

Indoxyl Sulfate Promotes Macrophage IL-1β Production by Activating Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor/NF-κ/MAPK Cascades, but the NLRP3 inflammasome Was Not Activated.

Indoxyl Sulfate Promotes Macrophage IL-1β Production by Activating Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor/NF-κ/MAPK Cascades, but the NLRP3 inflammasome Was Not Activated.
Author Information (click to view)

Wakamatsu T, Yamamoto S, Ito T, Sato Y, Matsuo K, Takahashi Y, Kaneko Y, Goto S, Kazama JJ, Gejyo F, Narita I,


Wakamatsu T, Yamamoto S, Ito T, Sato Y, Matsuo K, Takahashi Y, Kaneko Y, Goto S, Kazama JJ, Gejyo F, Narita I, (click to view)

Wakamatsu T, Yamamoto S, Ito T, Sato Y, Matsuo K, Takahashi Y, Kaneko Y, Goto S, Kazama JJ, Gejyo F, Narita I,

Advertisement

Toxins 2018 03 1510(3) pii E124
Abstract

In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, accumulation of uremic toxins is associated with cardiovascular risk and mortality. One of the hallmarks of kidney disease-related cardiovascular disease is intravascular macrophage inflammation, but the mechanism of the reaction with these toxins is not completely understood. Macrophages differentiated from THP-1 cells were exposed to indoxyl sulfate (IS), a representative uremic toxin, and changes in inflammatory cytokine production and intracellular signaling molecules including interleukin (IL)-1, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), nuclear factor (NF)-κ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades as well as the NLRP3 inflammasome were quantified by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IS induced macrophage pro-IL-1β mRNA expression, although mature IL-1 was only slightly increased. IS increased AhR and the AhR-related mRNA expression; this change was suppressed by administration of proteasome inhibitor. IS promoted phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and MAPK enzymes; the reaction and IL-1 expression were inhibited by BAY11-7082, an inhibitor of NF-κB. In contrast, IS decreased NLRP3 and did not change ASC, pro-caspase 1, or caspase-1 activation. IS-inducing inflammation in macrophages results from accelerating AhR-NF-κB/MAPK cascades, but the NLRP3 inflammasome was not activated. These reactions may restrict mature IL-1β production, which may explain sustained chronic inflammation in CKD patients.

Submit a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

14 + eighteen =

[ HIDE/SHOW ]