PloS one 2017 02 1712(2) e0172533 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0172533
Preterm and small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with adverse outcomes during the first stages of life. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality associated with preterm and SGA births during the first year of life in a rural area of Southern Mozambique.
This is a retrospective cohort study using previously collected data from children born at the Manhiça District Hospital in two different periods (2003-2005 and 2010-2012). Newborns were classified as being preterm and/or SGA or as babies not fulfilling any of the previous conditions (term non-SGA). All children were followed up for a year for morbidity and mortality outcomes.
A total of 5574 live babies were included in the analysis. The prevalence of preterm delivery was 6.2% (345/5574); the prevalence of SGA was 14.0% (776/5542) and 2.2% (114/5542) of the children presented both conditions. During the neonatal period, preterm delivery and SGA were associated with 13 (HR: 13.0, 95% CI 4.0-42.2) and 5 times (HR: 4.5, 95% CI: 1.6-12.6) higher mortality compared to term non SGA babies. Risk of hospitalization was only increased when both conditions were present (IRR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1.5-8.1). Mortality is also increased during the entire first year, although at a lower rate.
Neonatal and infant mortality rates are remarkably high among preterm and SGA babies in southern Mozambique. These increased rates are concentrated within the neonatal period. Prompt identification of these conditions is needed to implement interventions aimed at increasing survival of these high-risk newborns.