Case-control study conducted March 15 to June 15, 2020. Cases were infants born to mothers with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection at delivery. The infant of non COVID-19 mother born before and after each case were selected as controls.
Of 695 deliveries, 62 (8.9%) infants were born to COVID-19 mothers; 124 controls were selected. Among cases, 18.3% were preterm compared to 8.1% in controls (p=0.04). In preterm cases, birth weight was not significantly different between groups. However, there was a significantly higher proportion of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions, need for respiratory support, suspected sepsis, hyperbilirubinemia, feeding intolerance and longer length of stay (LOS) in preterm cases. Among term cases, birth weight and adverse outcomes were not significantly different between cases and controls except for more feeding intolerance in cases. All infants born to COVID-19 mothers were COVID-19 negative at 24 and 48 h of life. No infants expired during birth hospitalization.
Significantly, more infants of COVID-19 mothers were premature compared to controls. Preterm cases were more likely to have adverse outcomes despite having similar birth weight and gestational age. These differences were not seen among full term infants. Health care providers should anticipate the need for NICU care when a COVID-19 mother presents in labor.
© 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston.