Scientific reports 2017 08 117(1) 7953 doi 10.1038/s41598-017-08537-2
Tumor-associated inflammation plays a critical role in facilitating tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Our previous study showed Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) could induce lung adenocarcinoma in mice. Chronic lung inflammation associated with superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2 upregulation was found in the lung carcinogenesis. However, it is unclear whether tumor-associated inflammation mediates SOD-2 to contribute to cell invasion in AFG1-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Here, we found increased SOD-2 expression associated with vimentin, α-SMA, Twist1, and MMP upregulation in AFG1-induced lung adenocarcinoma. Tumor-associated inflammatory microenvironment was also elicited, which may be related to SOD-2 upregulation and EMT in cancer cells. To mimic an AFG1-induced tumor-associated inflammatory microenvironment in vitro, we treated A549 cells and human macrophage THP-1 (MΦ-THP-1) cells with AFG1, TNF-α and/or IL-6 respectively. We found AFG1 did not promote SOD-2 expression and EMT in cancer cells, but enhanced TNF-α and SOD-2 expression in MΦ-THP-1 cells. Furthermore, TNF-α could upregulate SOD-2 expression in A549 cells through NF-κB pathway. Blocking of SOD-2 by siRNA partly inhibited TNF-α-mediated E-cadherin and vimentin alteration, and reversed EMT and cell migration in A549 cells. Thus, we suggest that tumor-associated inflammation mediates SOD-2 upregulation through NF-κB pathway, which may contribute to EMT and cell migration in AFG1-induced lung adenocarcinoma.