Inflammation-driven diseases and related comorbidities, such as the metabolic syndrome, obesity, fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases cause significant global burden. There is a growing body of evidence that nutrients alter inflammatory responses and can therefore make a decisive contribution to the treatment of these diseases. Recently, the inflammasome, a cytosolic multiprotein complex, was identified as a key player in inflammation and the development of various inflammation-mediated disorders, with nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain (NLRP) 3 being the inflammasome of interest. Here we provide an overview about the cellular signaling pathways underlying nuclear factor ‘kappa-light-chain-enhancer’ of activated B-cells (NF-κB)- and NLRP3-mediated inflammatory processes, the pathogenesis of the inflammatory diseases atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); next, we discuss the current state of knowledge for drug-based and dietary-based interventions for treating cardiovascular diseases and NAFLD. To date one of the most important antioxidant in the human diet is vitamin E. Various in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the different forms of vitamin E and also their derivatives have anti-inflammatory activity. Recent publications suggest that vitamin E – and possibly metabolites of vitamin E – are a promising therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory diseases such as NAFLD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.