For a study, researchers sought to investigate the influence of acute pancreatitis on mortality and hospital outcomes in children following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

Between 2003 and 2016, they examined nationally representative, nonoverlapping years from the National Inpatient Sample and the Kids Inpatient Database, covering all pediatric patients who received HSCT. Patients were split into those who had acute pancreatitis and those who did not, and demographics, clinical features, comorbid conditions linked to both HSCT and acute pancreatitis, and outcome metrics such as in-hospital mortality and health care resource utilization were compared (length of hospital stay and total hospitalization charges).

They looked at 128,772 hospitalizations of children and adolescents who had HSCT. The total incidence rate of acute pancreatitis was about 1%, with an increasing trend between 2003 and 2016, P<.001. Patients with acute pancreatitis had a considerably higher overall death rate (14.9% vs. 3.6%, P<.001). According to multivariate regression analysis, acute pancreatitis was independently linked with 3.4 times (95% CI 2.86-4.02, P<.001) greater risk of in-hospital death. End-organ damage and thrombotic events were more common in patients with acute pancreatitis who had HSCT. Pediatric acute pancreatitis was linked with 24.3 more days in the hospital (95% CI 22.9-25.7, P<.001) and an additional $213,496 in hospitalization expenditures (95% CI 193,768-233,063, P<.001).

Pediatric HSCT patients who develop acute pancreatitis have poor results, including increased in-hospital mortality, end-organ damage, a longer hospital stay, and higher hospitalization costs.