The aim of this study was to compare the effects of constant rate infusions (CRI) of fentanyl alone or combined with lidocaine and ketamine (FLK), on physiological parameters, isoflurane requirements and the number of postoperative analgesic rescues in dogs undergoing unilateral mastectomy. Twenty-two dogs were premedicated with acepromazine 0.02 mg/kg and morphine 0.5 mg/kg and anesthetized with propofol and isoflurane. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Fentanyl group [fentanyl 5 µg/kg loading dose (LD) and 9 µg/kg/h CRI; n = 11]; FLK group [fentanyl (same doses); lidocaine 2 mg/kg LD and 3 mg/kg/h CRI; ketamine 1.0 mg/kg LD and 0.6 mg/kg/h CRI; n = 11]. Intraoperative evaluations were performed before the start of surgery and administration of the treatments (T0); three minutes after the LD (T1); during incision and tissue divulsion (T2); during closure of the surgical wound (T3). Meloxicam (0.1 mg/kg) was administered at T3. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma concentrations of fentanyl, lidocaine and ketamine. Pain scores and the number of postoperative analgesic rescues with morphine (0.5 mg/kg) were evaluated for 24 hours postoperatively using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale. Compared to T0, significant decreases in heart rate (from 84 ± 28 to 53 ± 16 bpm in the Fentanyl group and from 93 ± 16 to 63 ± 15 bpm in FLK) and mean arterial pressure (from 61 ± 5 to 49 ± 10 mmHg in Fentanyl and from 59 ± 3 to 38 ± 6 mmHg in FLK) were observed at T1. Arterial hypotension was transient, with normalization of values at T2 and T3. The expired fraction of isoflurane did not differ significantly between the groups. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl, lidocaine and ketamine remained within the therapeutic range. Postoperatively, the number of dogs requiring analgesic rescue was significantly lower in the FLK (0/11, 0%) than in the Fentanyl group (5/11, 45%). In dogs administered morphine and meloxicam as part of the anesthesia protocol, an intraoperative CRI of FLK abolished the requirement for postoperative analgesic rescue for 24 hours in dogs undergoing mastectomy.
Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.