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Influenza vaccine as a coronary intervention for prevention of myocardial infarction.

Influenza vaccine as a coronary intervention for prevention of myocardial infarction.
Author Information (click to view)

MacIntyre CR, Mahimbo A, Moa AM, Barnes M,


MacIntyre CR, Mahimbo A, Moa AM, Barnes M, (click to view)

MacIntyre CR, Mahimbo A, Moa AM, Barnes M,

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Heart (British Cardiac Society) 2016 09 29102(24) 1953-1956 doi 10.1136/heartjnl-2016-309983
Abstract

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Influenza is one of the leading infectious causes of morbidity and mortality globally, and evidence is accumulating that it can precipitate acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This is thought to be due to a range of factors including inflammatory release of cytokines, disruption of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombogenesis, which may acutely occlude a coronary artery. There is a large body of observational and clinical trial evidence that shows that influenza vaccine protects against AMI. Estimates of the efficacy of influenza vaccine in preventing AMI range from 15% to 45%. This is a similar range of efficacy compared with the accepted routine coronary prevention measures such as smoking cessation (32-43%), statins (19-30%) and antihypertensive therapy (17-25%). Influenza vaccine should be considered as an integral part of CVD management and prevention. While it is recommended in many guidelines for patients with CVD, rates of vaccination in risk groups aged <65 years are very low, in the range of 30%. The incorporation of vaccination into routine CVD prevention in patient care requires a clinical practice paradigm change.

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