Influenza virus M2 and PB1-F2 proteins have been proposed to activate the Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in macrophages by altering intracellular ionic balance or mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, the precise mechanism by which these viral proteins trigger the NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unclear. Here we show that influenza virus stimulates oxidized DNA release from macrophages. Ion channel activity of the M2 protein or mitochondrial localization of the PB1-F2 protein was required for oxidized DNA release. The oxidized DNA enhanced influenza virus-induced IL-1β secretion, whereas inhibition of mitochondrial ROS production by antioxidant Mito-TEMPO decreased the virus-induced IL-1β secretion. In addition, we show that influenza virus stimulates IL-1β secretion from macrophages in an AIM2-dependent manner. These results provide a missing link between influenza viral proteins and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and reveal the importance of influenza virus-induced oxidized DNA in inflammasomes activation.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.