We have previously shown that particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED) of plasmids encoding β-galactosidase (βGal) under control of the fascin-1 promoter (pFascin-βGal) yielded selective production of the protein in skin dendritic cells (DCs), and suppressed Th2 responses in a mouse model of type I allergy by inducing Th1/Tc1 cells. However, intranasal challenge of mice immunized with pFascin-βGal induced airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and neutrophilic inflammation in the lung. The tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been implicated in immune suppression and tolerance induction. Here we investigated the consequences of co-application of an IDO-encoding vector on the modulatory effect of DNA vaccination by PMED using pFascin-βGal in models of eosinophilic allergic and non-eosinophilic intrinsic airway inflammation. IDO-encoding plasmids and pFascin-βGal or pCMV-βGal were co-applied to abdominal skin of BALB/c mice without, before or after sensitization with βGal protein. Immune responses in the lung were analysed after intranasal provocation and airway reactivity was determined by whole body plethysmography. Co-application of pCMV-IDO with pFascin-βGal, but not pCMV-βGal inhibited the Th1/Tc1 immune response after PMED. Moreover, AHR in those mice was attenuated following intranasal challenge. Therapeutic vaccination of βGal-sensitized mice with pFascin-βGal plus pCMV-IDO slightly suppressed airway inflammation and AHR after provocation with βGal protein, while prophylactic vaccination was not effective. Altogether, our data suggest that only the combination of DC-restricted antigen and ubiquitous IDO expression attenuated asthma responses in mice, most probably by forming a tryptophan-depleted and kynurenine-enriched micromilieu known to affect neutrophils and T cells.
Incidence and clinical outcomes of stroke in ST-elevation myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock.
May 1, 2020
July 16, 2020
Disability, Hospital Care, and Cost: Utilization of Emergency and Inpatient Care by a Cohort of Children with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
September 7, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.