In the current study, the N-benzylidene-4-((2-hydroxynaphthalene-1-yl) diazenyl) hydrazides (NCHDH and NTHDH) were evaluated against the Carrageenan- and CFA-induced models. During the preliminary investigation, the NCHDH and NTHDH treatment showed marked anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity against the Carrageenan-induced acute model. Once the anti-inflammatory activity was established against acute Carrageenan model, the NCHDH and NTHDH were evaluated against the chronic CFA-induced arthritis model. The NCHDH and NTHDH treatment markedly attenuated the inflammatory and analgesic parameters compared to CFA-treated group. Furthermore, the increase in the oxidative stress and attenuation of antioxidant enzymes has been reported following CFA administration. However, NCHDH and NTHDH treatment significantly induced the antioxidants and attenuated the oxidative stress markers. The CFA administration showed marked tailing of DNA; however, the NCHDH- and NTHDH-treated group preserved DNA integrity. Furthermore, the histological studies showed marked alteration in the CFA-treated group; however, the NCHDH and NTHDH treatment markedly improved the histological features. The Western blot, immunohistology, and ELISA assay revealed marked increase in the Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK), TNF-α, and COX-2 levels; however, the NCHDH and NTHDH attenuated their expressions significantly. Similarly, the NCHDH and NTHDH significantly induced the mRNA expression levels of heat shock proteins. The computational analysis showed significant binding interaction with various protein targets via multiple hydrogens, and hydrophobic bonds. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study was also performed to assess the various pharmacokinetic parameters. In conclusion, the NCHDH and NTHDH treatment showed significant anti-arthritic activity against Carrageenan and CFA models.