Innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2) play an important role in the initiation and control of type 2 immune responses and are a major source of type 2 cytokines. The study discusses new discoveries on the involvement of ILC2 in the integration, processing, and coordination of innate and adaptive immunological responses, with a particular emphasis on the possible relevance of ILC2 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Recent research has revealed the complex crosstalk that occurs between ILC2 and various innate and adaptive immune cell types, indicating that ILC2 plays an important role not only in mounting type 2 immune responses at barrier surfaces but also in tissue repair responses and normal homeostatic functions. ILC2 illness research has yielded crucial discoveries, particularly in the context of allergic inflammatory diseases, stressing a key function for ILC2 and, in particular, ILC2-derived IL-13 in upper and lower airway disorders such as asthma.

The discovery and characterization of ILC2 in the context of health and illness has resulted in a plethora of new information about the mechanisms of type 2 immune responses. Asthma, chronic rhinosinusitis, atopic dermatitis, fibrosis, helminth aversion, and obesity are all affected by this.