The following is a summary of “Vitamin D insufficiency and serum levels related to the incidence and stage of cutaneous melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” published in the August 2023 issue of Melanoma Research by Shellenberger et al.
Vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma (CM), the most lethal form of skin cancer. Researchers investigated the association between vitamin D deficiency and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the incidence and stage of CM. Five databases were examined from their inception to July 11, 2022. Cohort and case-control studies that reported mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels or the presence of vitamin D insufficiency in CM patients and compared them with healthy controls or those that reported vitamin D deficiency and Breslow tumor depth or the development of metastases in CM were included.
There were fourteen studies included in the analysis. There were statistically significant associations between vitamin D level 20 ng/dl and the incidence of CM [pooled relative risk (RR) 1.45, 95% CI 1.04–2.02]; lower mean vitamin D level and Breslow depth >1 mm (SMD 0.19, 95% CI 0.11–0.28); and vitamin D level >20 ng/dl and Breslow depth 1 mm (pooled RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.
The relationships between vitamin D levels and the presence of metastasis (pooled SMD 0.13, 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.12) and mean vitamin D level and the incidence of CM (pooled SMD 0.39, 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.01) were not statistically significant. They found an association between increased CM incidence and vitamin D deficiency, less favorable Breslow tumor depth with lower vitamin D levels, and the presence of vitamin D deficiency.