The aim of this study was to associate dietary intake with sarcopenia and its components in kidney transplant patients (KTPs).
A cross-sectional study was performed with 125 KTPs. Strength was evaluated by handgrip strength (HGS) and appendicular muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance. Functional capacity was assessed by 4-m walking test. Sarcopenia was diagnosed by revised European Consensus on Definition and Diagnosis (2019). Dietary assessment was carried out through two 24-h dietary recalls. It evaluated the consumption of energy (kcal), carbohydrates, protein (total and from animal and vegetable food sources), total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and ω-3 (g) and ω-6 (g).
Intake of ω-3 was positively associated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI; kg/m). The greater intake of PUFA (g and %) and ω-3 (g) was associated with lower chance to present low ASMI and sarcopenia. None of the other dietary components evaluated in the present study were associated with ASMI and sarcopenia. Walking speed and HGS were not associated with dietary variables.
Intake of ω-3 and PUFAs are protective factors for sarcopenia and low muscle mass, but not for strength and functional capacity, in KTPs.

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