The interactions and mechanisms between soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) and three types of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), i.e., nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles, FeO NPs, and FeO NPs, were investigated in short-term exposure experiments. The adsorption results showed that soil DOM was rapidly adsorbed on the surface of the iron-based NPs with the adsorption rate varying according to FeO > FeO > nZVI. Spectral analysis results revealed that aromatic DOM fractions with high-molecular-weights were preferentially adsorbed. The binding mechanism was determined as hydrogen bonding and ligand exchange via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were used to identify the corrosion products of the three iron-based NPs at the adsorption equilibrium. The results suggest that FeO and/or γ-FeO and α-FeOOH were the main corrosion products of nZVIs and α-FeOOH was obtained as an aged product of FeO NPs. Results of Cr(VI) removal tests suggest that the aged nZVI achieved 79.87% of Cr(VI) removal and the Cr(VI) removal efficiency was significantly improved by coating DOM onto FeO NPs. The overall data indicate the fate and transformation of iron-based NPs and the enhancement for Cr(VI) removal after interactions between DOM and NPs.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.