Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is one of the common causes of emergency department visits around the world. Up to 90% of injuries are classified as mTBI. Cranial computed tomography (CCT) is a standard diagnostic tool for adults with mTBI. Alternatively, children can be admitted for inpatient observation with CCT scans performed only on those with clinical deterioration. The use of blood biomarkers is a supplementary tool for identifying patients at risk of intracerebral lesions who may need imaging. This review provides a contemporary clinical and laboratory framework for blood biomarker testing in mTBI management. The S100B protein is used routinely in the management of mTBI in Europe together with clinical guidelines. Due to its excellent negative predictive value, S100B protein is an alternative choice to CCT scanning for mTBI management under considered, consensual and pragmatic use. In this review, we propose points to help clinicians and clinical pathologists use serum S100B protein in the clinical routine. A review of the literature on the different biomarkers (GFAP, UCH-L1, NF [H or L], tau, H-FABP, SNTF, NSE, miRNAs, MBP, β trace protein) is also conducted. Some of these other blood biomarkers, used alone (GFAP, UCH-L1) or in combination (GFAP + H-FABP ± S100B ± IL10) can improve the specificity of S100B.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.