Journal of virology 2017 10 1391(21) pii 10.1128/JVI.00972-17
A hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vivo is chronic immune activation concomitant with type I interferon (IFN) production. Although type I IFN induces an antiviral state in many cell types, HIV-1 can replicate in vivo via mechanisms that have remained unclear. We have recently identified a type I IFN-inducible protein, CD169, as the HIV-1 attachment factor on dendritic cells (DCs) that can mediate robust infection of CD4(+) T cells in trans Since CD169 expression on macrophages is also induced by type I IFN, we hypothesized that type I IFN-inducible CD169 could facilitate productive HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells in cis and CD4(+) T cells in trans and thus offset antiviral effects of type I IFN. In support of this hypothesis, infection of HIV-1 or murine leukemia virus Env (MLV-Env)-pseudotyped HIV-1 particles was enhanced in IFN-α-treated THP-1 monocytoid cells, and this enhancement was primarily dependent on CD169-mediated enhancement at the virus entry step, a phenomenon phenocopied in HIV-1 infections of IFN-α-treated primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Furthermore, expression of CD169, a marker of type I IFN-induced immune activation in vivo, was enhanced in lymph nodes from pigtailed macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) carrying HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT-SHIV), compared to uninfected macaques, and interestingly, there was extensive colocalization of p27(gag) and CD169, suggesting productive infection of CD169(+) myeloid cells in vivo While cell-free HIV-1 infection of IFN-α-treated CD4(+) T cells was robustly decreased, initiation of infection in trans via coculture with CD169(+) IFN-α-treated DCs restored infection, suggesting that HIV-1 exploits CD169 in cis and in trans to attenuate a type I IFN-induced antiviral state.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection in humans causes immune activation characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFN). Although type I IFN induces an antiviral state in many cell types in vitro, HIV-1 can replicate in vivo via mechanisms that have remained unclear. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CD169, a type I IFN-inducible HIV-1 attachment factor, offsets antiviral effects of type I IFN. Infection of HIV-1 was rescued in IFN-α-treated myeloid cells via upregulation of CD169 and a subsequent increase in CD169-dependent virus entry. Furthermore, extensive colocalization of viral Gag and CD169 was observed in lymph nodes of infected pigtailed macaques, suggesting productive infection of CD169(+) cells in vivo Treatment of dendritic cell (DC)-T cell cocultures with IFN-α upregulated CD169 expression on DCs and rescued HIV-1 infection of CD4(+) T cells in trans, suggesting that HIV-1 exploits CD169 to attenuate type I IFN-induced restrictions.