Migraine and other primary headache disorders can be localized in the face resembling facial or dental pain, indicating the influence of the trigeminovascular system in the structures innervated by the maxillary (V2) and mandibulary (V3) branches of the trigeminal nerve. Disorders of oral and craniofacial structures may influence primary headache disorders. In the current article, we review the potential links of this interplay.
This interplay may be related to anatomy, with the trigeminal pathway and the involvement of both peripheral and central mechanisms, and the presence of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a key mediator in migraine pathophysiology. CGRP is also involved in the pathophysiology of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and their comorbidity with migraine and is also implicated in dental and periodontal pathology. Inflammatory and pathological processes of these structures and their trigeminal nociceptive pathways may influence the trigeminovascular system and consequently may exacerbate or even potentially trigger migraine.

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