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Intestinal absorption mechanisms of 2′-deoxy-2′-β-fluoro-4′-azidocytidine, a cytidine analog for AIDS treatment, and its interaction with P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein.

Intestinal absorption mechanisms of 2′-deoxy-2′-β-fluoro-4′-azidocytidine, a cytidine analog for AIDS treatment, and its interaction with P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and breast cancer resistance protein.
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Liu Y, Liu B, Zhang Y, Peng Y, Huang C, Wang N, Jiang J, Wang Q, Chang J,


Liu Y, Liu B, Zhang Y, Peng Y, Huang C, Wang N, Jiang J, Wang Q, Chang J, (click to view)

Liu Y, Liu B, Zhang Y, Peng Y, Huang C, Wang N, Jiang J, Wang Q, Chang J,

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European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 2017 05 06105() 150-158 pii 10.1016/j.ejps.2017.05.009

Abstract

2′-Deoxy-2′-β-fluoro-4′-azidocytidine (FNC), a cytidine analog, has attracted great interest because of its potent activity against wild-type and multidrug-resistant HIV. The purpose of current study was to investigate the absorption mechanisms of FNC in the small intestine, as well as the interactions between FNC and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The experiments were performed using Caco-2 cells and the rat small intestine. The uptake experiment indicated that FNC concentration, extracellular pH and the incubated temperature could influence the uptake of FNC in Caco-2 cells. NaN3, verapamil, probenecid, MK571 and GF120918 could significantly increase the FNC uptake in Caco-2 cells. The transport experiment showed that both the absorption and secretion of FNC were concentration dependent. The secretion of FNC was approximately 2-fold greater than the absorption. In the presence of verapamil, probenecid, MK571 or GF120918, the efflux ratio decreased by >50%. In everted rat intestine, the absorption of FNC also depended on its concentration and was not significantly different in the different segments of the small intestine. Real-time RT-PCR results indicated that the gene expressions of P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP were up-regulated after exposure to FNC. The reduction in accumulation of rhodamine 123 after treatment with FNC revealed its ability to up-regulate P-gp activity. In conclusion, FNC was completely absorbed by passive diffusion and active transport mechanisms. P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP could influence the absorption of FNC in the small intestine. FNC could modulate the gene expressions of P-gp, MRP2 and BCRP, and increase the activity of P-gp.

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