To report evolution and predictive value of intracystic hyperreflective material (ICHRM) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in centre-involving diabetic macular oedema (CI-DME).
Demographic and OCT features of patients with treatment-naïve CI-DME were analysed retrospectively. OCT parameters noted were macular oedema type, ICHRM presence, presence of hyperreflective spots, disorganised inner retinal layers and outer retinal layers integrity. Eyes were grouped into group 1 CI-DME without ICHRM and group 2 CI-DME with ICHRM. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were done to study the correlation between various OCT features and final vision.
In this study, 62 eyes of 50 patients were included in group 1 and 61 eyes of 51 patients in group 2. Mean presenting logMAR vision in groups 1 and 2 was 0.374 ± 0.346 and 0.523 ± 0.369 respectively. Poor final visual acuity was noted in CI-DME with ICHRM group (p = 0.015). On linear regression analysis, 3 OCT features, namely, ICHRM presence (p = 0.034), inner segment-outer segment layer disruption (p = 0.001) and ellipsoid zone defects (p = 0.003), were associated with poor final vision. More intravitreal anti-VEGF (2.98 vs 0.629) and steroid (1.51 vs 0.242) injections were required for macular oedema resolution in ICHRM group.
This study is the first to assess the ICHRM on OCT as predictor for treatment outcome in DME eyes. We described its evolution during the DME management and its plausible influence on intravitreal therapy. We believe that this finding has the potential to become a novel biomarker for predicting the visual outcome in DME.