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Intramembranous bone formation after callus distraction is augmented by increasing axial compressive strain.

Intramembranous bone formation after callus distraction is augmented by increasing axial compressive strain.
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Schuelke J, Meyers N, Reitmaier S, Klose S, Ignatius A, Claes L,


Schuelke J, Meyers N, Reitmaier S, Klose S, Ignatius A, Claes L, (click to view)

Schuelke J, Meyers N, Reitmaier S, Klose S, Ignatius A, Claes L,

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PloS one 2018 04 0613(4) e0195466 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0195466
Abstract

The mechanical environment is a primary factor in the success of distraction osteogenesis. It is known that the interfragmentary movement during the distraction and maturation phase effects the callus formation. In addition to cyclic compression, other movements like shear and bending influence the bone formation process as shown in previous callus distraction studies. Reports of cartilage presence and endochondral ossification in the regenerative zone have been associated with a lack of fixation stability and delayed healing. So far the effects of the direction of interfragmentary movements could not be studied separately. By means of a unique lateral callus distraction model, we investigated the effects of small (0.1 mm) and moderate (0.6 mm), purely axial compression on ossification during callus maturation in sheep. A distraction device incorporating a mobile titanium plate was mounted on the tibia. Following lateral callus distraction, electromechanically controlled movements allowed purely axial cyclic compression of the tissue regenerate. Seven weeks post-operatively, the tissue regenerates were investigated using μCT, histology and immunohistochemistry. The larger amplitude significantly increased bone formation (Fractional bone volume: 19.4% vs. 5.2%, p = 0.03; trabecular thickness: 0.1 mm vs. 0.06 mm, p = 0.006; mean spicule height: 2.6 mm vs. 1.1 mm, p = 0.02) however, no endochondral ossification occurred. The elimination of shear movement, unimpaired neovascularization as well as the tensile strain stimuli during the distraction phase suppressing chondrogenic differentiation may all contribute to the absence of cartilage. In clinical application of distraction osteogenesis, moderate axial interfragmentary movement augments intramembranous ossification provided shear strain is minimized.

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