Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology 2017 04 19() 1-13 doi 10.1080/21691401.2017.1313266
Incompetence of antiretrovirals (ARV) in complete eradication of HIV from the CNS is the biggest issue in neuro-AIDS treatment. The ineffectiveness is largely due to the poor penetration of ARV. Hence, the present study is attempted to enhance the CNS uptake of efavirenz (EFV) by designing intranasal EFV nanoparticles (EFV-NPs). EFV-NPs were fabricated using chitosan-g-HPβCD by ionic gelation method and optimized using quadratic response surface methodology (RSM) employing two-factor, five-level circumscribed central composite design. NPs containing drug: polymer ratio (1.25:0.79) were spherical with 198 ± 4.4 nm size, 23.28 ± 1.5% drug loading and 38 ± 1.43% entrapment efficiency. NPs showed sustained drug release (99.03 ± 0.30% in 8 h) and followed Fickian diffusion mechanism. It gave 4.76 times greater permeability than plain drug solution through porcine nasal mucosa. Enhanced CNS bioavailability (12.40-fold that of i.v solution) of EFV, high drug-targeting percentage (99.24%) and drug-targeting index (141.3) post-intranasal administration of NPs was observed. These results are corroborated by gamma scintigraphy images, which revealed high CNS uptake. NPs appeared histocompatible with porcine nasal mucosa and non-toxic to L929 cell line. Thus, CS-g-HPβCD served as a potential carrier in developing intranasal mucoadhesive EFV-NPs for the CNS targeting.