Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) represent an efficient vaccination tool to deliver immunogenic antigens to the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), which subsequently stimulate protective immune responses against infectious diseases. Herein, we prepared CNPs encapsulating mRNA molecules followed by surface coating with conserved H9N2 HA2 and M2e influenza proteins. We demonstrated that CNPs efficiently delivered mRNA molecules into APCs and had effectively penetrated the mucosal barrier to reach to the immune initiation sites. To investigate the potential of CNPs delivering influenza antigens to stimulate protective immunity, we intranasally vaccinated chickens with empty CNPs, CNPs delivering HA2 and M2e in both mRNA and protein formats (CNPs + RNA + Pr) or CNPs delivering antigens in protein format only (CNPs + Pr). Our results demonstrated that chickens vaccinated with CNPs + RNA + Pr elicited significantly (p < 0.05) higher systemic IgG, mucosal IgA antibody responses and cellular immune responses compared to the CNPs + Pr vaccinated group. Consequently, upon challenge with either H7N9 or H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), efficient protection, in the context of viral load and lung pathology, was observed in chickens vaccinated with CNPs + RNA + Pr than CNPs + Pr vaccinated group. In conclusion, we show that HA2 and M2e antigens elicited a broad spectrum of protection against AIVs and incorporation of mRNAs in vaccine formulation is an effective strategy to induce superior immune responses.
Proper Disposal of Prescription Opioids in Southwest Virginia: Assessment of Patient, Physician, and Medical Student Beliefs and Practices.
April 3, 2020
February 28, 2020
Analytical performance evaluation of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) immunoassays.
August 31, 2020
June 4, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- CROI 2020Every year, CROI hosts some of the world's leading experts in HIV research, who come to present exciting new data and drive forward the field of HIV/AIDS research. This year, due to COVID-19, CROI held their meeting virtually.