This article aims to review the impact of detecting and quantifying intraocular biomarkers (liquid biopsy) in both aqueous and vitreous humor in eyes of people affected by diabetes mellitus.
This is a detailed review about aqueous and/or vitreous humor sampling in human diabetic eyes for proteomic and/or metabolomic analysis contributing to the understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment effects of diabetic retinopathy.
Aqueous and vitreous humor molecular biomarkers proved to be directly correlated to each other and valuable to study retinal conditions. Moreover, proteomic and metabolomic analysis showed that the biomarkers of neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and vasculopathy are detectable in intraocular fluids and that their concentration changes in different stages of disease, and in response to treatment of all diabetic retinopathy aspects, mainly diabetic macular edema and proliferative retinopathy.
Liquid biopsy offers the possibility to improve our knowledge of intraocular eye disease induced by diabetes mellitus. The exact quantification of intraocular biomarkers contributes to the precision medicine approach even in the diabetic retinopathy scenario. The diffusion of this approach should be encouraged to have quantifiable information directly from the human model, which may be coupled with imaging data.