This study aimed to retrospectively review the diagnosis and surgical treatment of uterine intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL).
The clinical data of 14 patients with uterine IVL admitted to our hospital between 2013 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed, including their demographics, imaging results, surgical procedures, perioperative complications, and follow-up results.
The tumors were confined to the pelvic cavity in 7 patients, 1 into the inferior vena cava, 4 into the right atrium, and 2 into the pulmonary artery (including 1 into the superior vena cava). Only one case was misdiagnosed as right atrial myxoma before the operation, which was found during the surgery and was treated by staging surgery; all the other patients underwent one-stage surgical resection. Three patients underwent complete resection of the right atrial tumor through the abdominal incision, and one patient died of heart failure in the process of resection of heart tumor without abdominal surgery. During the 6-60 months of follow-up, 4 patients developed deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremity, and 1 patient developed ovarian vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. After anticoagulation treatment, the symptoms disappeared. One patient refused hysterectomy and the uterine fibroids recurred 4 years after the operation.
Specific surgical plans for uterine IVL can be formulated according to cardiac ultrasound and computed tomography (CT). For the first type of tumor involving the right atrium, the right atrium tumor can be completely removed through the abdominal incision alone to avoid thoracotomy. The disease is at high risk of thrombosis and perioperative routine anticoagulation is required.

Copyright © 2020 Qingbo Su et al.