To assess the clinical effects of preoperative, intraoperative, or preoperative combined with intraoperative intravitreal conbercept (IVC) injection in vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Ninety-eight eyes of 98 severe PDR patients undergoing vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Group 1 (34 eyes) received IVC injections 3 to 5 days before surgery; Group 2 (35 eyes) received IVC injections at the end of surgery; and Group 3 (29 eyes) received IVC injections 3 to 5 days before and at the end of operation. Follow-up examinations were performed for 6 months. The incidence and severity of intraoperative bleeding were not significantly different ( = 0.233). However, the duration of surgery was significantly shorter in Group 1 and Group 3 compared with Group 2 ( < 0.001). The incidences of early and late recurrent vitreous hemorrhage (VH) were 32.35%, 28.57%, and 13.80%, respectively. At 6-month follow-up, mean best-corrected visual acuity had significantly increased to 1.25 ± 0.45 logMAR in Group 1, 1.29 ± 0.46 logMAR in Group 2, 1.16 ± 0.44 logMAR in Group 3 (all  < 0.001). The incidence of postoperative VH, neovascular glaucoma, and retinal detachment in Group 3 was slightly lower, however, no significant differences were observed (all  > 0.05). In young patients, similar results were observed and Group 3 had better visual improvements ( = 0.037). Preoperative IVC injection could be a safe and effective adjunct in pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade for severe PDR. Preoperative combined with intraoperative IVC are promising, especially in young patients.