Mucormycosis is an invasive, life-threatening fungal infection that mainly affects immunocompromised hosts. We collected data of pediatric mucormycosis cases from all 7 Greek Hematology-Oncology Departments for the years 2008-2017. Six cases of invasive mucormycosis diagnosed during treatment for malignancies were included in the study. In 4 children (66%) mucormycosis occurred within the first 20 days after diagnosis of the underlying disease. Two cases were classified as proven mucormycosis and 4 as probable. The most frequently recorded species was Rhizopus arrhizus (2 patients), followed by Mucor spp (1), and Lichtheimia spp (1). All patients received liposomal amphotericin B. Combined antifungal treatment was used in 5 cases. Surgical excision was performed in 4 cases (66%). Two patients died at 6 and 12 months after the diagnosis, respectively, 1 (17%) because of mucormycosis. Our data suggest that mucormycosis may occur early after the initiation of intensive chemotherapy in children with malignancies.
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