Animal tuberculosis (aTB) is a zoonotic disease characterized by granulomatous lesions on affected tissues, occurring as a consequence of immunological response to infection. Mycobacterium bovis, the main causative agent of aTB, was investigated in Brazilian wild boars with 37.7 % (29/77) positivity. Among these animals, most had no macroscopic tuberculosis-like lesions (89.6 %; 26/29). The existence of co-infections, which may alter an individual’s immune response to an immunological challenge, could influence the formation of tuberculosis lesions. Therefore, we investigated Metastrongylus sp. and aTB co-infection to seek an explanation for the absence of macroscopic lesions in aTB. Of the tested animals, 77.9 % (60/77) had Metastrongylus sp., however, there was no association between its occurrence and the pattern of aTB lesions. The absence of tuberculous lesions in infected animals is worrisome, especially to hunters who handle their carcasses, potentially assuming that the animal is healthy. Studies evaluating other possibilities that can explain the absence of lesions in infected animals should be carried out to better understand these findings.
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