For a review, researchers presented a thorough examination of the most current findings on the processes driving nonimmediate responses to iodinated contrast media and to remark on recent diagnostic improvements, with an emphasis on the roles of the skin test, drug provocation test (DPT), and lymphocyte transformation test (LTT). Several investigations presented fresh data indicating that T-lymphocytes played a major role in non-immediate responses to iodinated contrast media. The LTT had been utilized as an in-vitro diagnostic tool, albeit with mixed results. The addition of autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells as professional antigen-presenting cells, on the other hand, had increased the sensitivity of this test. Although skin testing had been used routinely for in-vivo diagnosis, it had since been demonstrated that its sensitivity and negative predictive value were minimal. Recent research had shown that the DPT was a safe and effective method for confirming the diagnosis of non-immediate hypersensitivity responses to iodinated contrast media.

T-cells were frequently involved in non-immediate responses to contrast media. Skin testing was used to make a diagnosis, although its sensitivity and negative predictive value were not ideal. As a result, drug provocation testing was frequently required to confirm the diagnosis as well as to identify alternate contrast media that could be tolerated.