Salvia is the largest genus of the Lamiaceae family, with over 900 species in the world which about 60 species are distributed in Iran, 17 of them are endemic. In Iran, Salvia species have been used to treat various diseases with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes the phytochemistry and pharmacology of medicinal Iranian Salvia species in order to describe their therapeutic potential for a range of diseases. . Phytochemical investigations reveal that the Iranian Salvia has a varied range of metabolites including terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The most important pharmacological activities are antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory. Iranian Salvia traditionally used as carminatives, analgesics, digestive aids, antiseptics, sedative, anxiolytic, hypnotic, pain reduction and antidiabetic. Among the endemic species, the most interesting for human health are treating a variety of diseases.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.