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Is ABCA1 a Lipid Transfer Protein?

Is ABCA1 a Lipid Transfer Protein?
Author Information (click to view)

Phillips MC,


Phillips MC, (click to view)

Phillips MC,

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Journal of lipid research 2018 01 05() pii jlr.R082313
Abstract

ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) functions as a lipid transporter because it mediates the transfer of cellular phospholipid (PL) and free (unesterified) cholesterol (FC) to apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and related proteins present in the extracellular medium. ABCA1 is a membrane PL translocase and its enzymatic activity leads to transfer of PL molecules from the cytoplasmic leaflet to the exofacial leaflet of a cell plasma membrane. The presence of active ABCA1 in the plasma membrane promotes binding of apoA-I to the cell surface. About 10% of this bound apoA-I interacts directly with ABCA1 and stabilizes the transporter. Most of the pool of cell surface-associated apoA-I is bound to lipid domains in the plasma membrane that are created by the activity of ABCA1. The amphipathic α-helices in apoA-I confer detergent-like properties on the protein enabling it to solubilize PL and FC in these membrane domains to create a heterogeneous population of discoidal nascent HDL particles. This review focuses on current understanding of the structure-function relationships of human ABCA1 and the molecular mechanisms underlying HDL particle production.

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