Clinical data of 4,325 patients undergone kidney surgery were collected at 26 urological Italian Centers from 2013 to 2016. SLE was defined as a ≥95% 10y-EM (assessed using the age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index [CCI]). A multivariable logistic regression for overall postoperative complications, acute kidney injury (AKI), positive surgical margins (SM) and ∆ estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥25% at 2 years from surgery was performed in patients with SLE including clinically relevant variables. Adjusted outcomes reported as mean (SD) of the 2 groups were generated using separate multivariable logistic regression models and compared.
Overall, 559 patients with SLE were selected. Patients had an ASA score ≥3 in 58.4% of cases. A clinical T1a, T1b, and T2 stage was found in 412 (74.5%), 124 (22.4%), and 17 (3.1%) patients. The median PADUA score was 7 (6-8). Surgical and medical postoperative complication rates were registered in 14.8% and 6% cases. Postoperative AKI was reported in 27.3% cases, positive surgical margins (PSM) in 9.3% cases. In this subgroup of patients, ASA score, cerebrovascular disease, surgery in low volume centers, and open surgery were independent predictors of overall complications. ASA and PADUA scores, renal clamping, resection technique and lower eGFR at baseline were independent predictors of AKI. PADUA score, open approach and resection technique were independent predictors of PSM. Cardiovascular disease, hilar clamping, and resection technique were independent predictors of eGFR decrease >25% at 2 years from surgery. Patients with SLE were compared with those with LLE (n = 302). All analyzed parameters at baseline were significantly different among the groups with the exception of cancer laterality. After adjusting for several clinical variables, the SLE group had a significantly higher risk rate of adjusted overall postoperative complication rate compared to the LLE group (20.6% ± 0.36 vs. 9.9% ± 0.65, P < 0.0001), while the overall intraoperative complications (4.1% ±0.13 vs. 2.3% ± 0.23), overall postoperative major complications (3.8% ± 0.09 vs. 1.9% ± 0.14) adjusted AKI (24.2% ± 0.37 vs. 22.6% ± 0.92), positive surgical margins (8% ± 0.22 vs. 6.4% ± 0.49), and 2-year RF loss (13.4% ± 0.17 vs. 12.4% ± 0.74).
In selected patients with SLE, PN is feasible with an acceptable safety profile that is overall comparable to patients with no LE limitations. While a robotic approach and surgery performed in high volume centers could reduce the risk of complications, an off-clamp approach and a SE surgical technique may decrease the risk of postoperative AKI and of longer term eGFR decrease.
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