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Is weak CD4+ gain in the course of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection a current clinical challenge? A case report and brief review of the literature.

Is weak CD4+ gain in the course of suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection a current clinical challenge? A case report and brief review of the literature.
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Tincati C, Merlini E, d'Arminio Monforte A, Marchetti G,


Tincati C, Merlini E, d'Arminio Monforte A, Marchetti G, (click to view)

Tincati C, Merlini E, d'Arminio Monforte A, Marchetti G,

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BMC infectious diseases 2018 01 0518(1) 8 doi 10.1186/s12879-017-2942-3
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Individuals lacking immune recovery during suppressive cART will still represent a clinical issue in the years to come, given the high proportion of HIV-infected subjects introducing therapy late in the course of disease. Understanding the mechanisms underlying poor CD4+ T-cell gain is crucial for the correct clinical management of individuals in this context.

CASE PRESENTATION
An HIV-infected subject with poor CD4+ T-cell gain in the course of suppressive antiretroviral therapy was extensively investigated to identify the mechanisms behind inadequate CD4+ reconstitution. In particular, we studied the phenotype of circulating T-cells, interleukin-7 signaling in peripheral blood and bone marrow, gut function and microbial translocation markers as well as the composition of the faecal microbiota. Numerous therapeutic interventions ranging from antiretroviral therapy intensification to immunotherapy and anti-hepatitis C virus treatment were also employed in order to target the possible causes of poor immune-recovery.

CONCLUSIONS
Poor CD4+ T-cell gain on suppressive antiretroviral therapy is multifactorial and thus represents a clinical challenge. Clinicians should investigate subjects’ immune profile as well as possible causes of chronic antigenic stimulation for the administration of the most appropriate therapeutic strategies in this setting.

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