The question of whether orthodontic therapy by means of rapid palatal expansion (RPE) affects the spine during development is important in clinical practice. RPE is an expansive, fixed therapy conducted with heavy forces to separate the midpalatal suture at a rate of 0.2-0.5 mm/day. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of RPE on the curves of the spine of juvenile/adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. Eighteen patients under orthopedic supervision for juvenile/adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and independently treated with RPE for orthodontic reasons were included in the study: Group A, 10 subjects (10.4 ± 1.3 years), first spinal radiograph before the application of the RPE, second one during the orthodontic therapy with RPE; Group B, 8 patients (11.3 ± 1.6 years), first radiograph during the use of RPE second one after the removal. Group A showed a significant worsening of the Cobb angle ( ≤ 0.005) at the second radiograph after RPE. Group B showed a significant improvement of the Cobb angle ( = 0.01) at the second radiograph after removal of RPE. Based on the results, the use of RPE during adolescence might influence the spinal curves of patients with idiopathic scoliosis.