Juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is a subset of primary open-angle glaucoma that is diagnosed before 40 years of age. The disease may be familial or non-familial, with proportions varying among different populations. Myocilin mutations are the most commonly associated. JOAG is characterized by high intraocular pressures (IOP), with many patients needing surgery. The mean age at diagnosis is in the 3 decade, with a male preponderance. Myopia is a common association. The pathophysiology underlying the disease is immaturity of the conventional outflow pathways, which may or may not be observed on gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The unique optic nerve head features include large discs with deep, steep cupping associated with high IOP-induced damage. Progression rates among JOAG patients are comparable to adult primary glaucomas, but as the disease affects younger patients, the projected disability from this disease is higher. Early diagnosis, prompt management, and life-long monitoring play an important role in preventing disease progression. Gene-based therapies currently under investigation offer future hope.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.